Journal of Hydrology ELSEVIER Journal of Hydrology 199 (1997) 360-377 Streamflow responses to afforestation with Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus patula and to felling in the Mokobulaan experimental catchments, South Africa David F. Scott*, W. Lesch Jonkers Forestry Research Centre, CSIR, PO Box 320, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa Received 26 … The flowers have a strong scent and beekeepers assert that bees travel at least 32 km (20 miles) to some plantations. Mark W. 1983. Stomata may also not close completely at night. 4.3). Return of nutrients in litterfall is the major route of recycling from vegetation to soil. Eucalyptus Cloeziana and Grandis are often used in Earth, Road and Hydraulic engineering. It has been shown in a number of investigations that the external hyphae of mycorrhizae can absorb P from outside the root depletion zone and transport P to the host plant. [3][6][7], The Sydney blue gum (E. saligna) is very similar in appearance and overlaps E. grandis in the southern part of its range, but has narrower leaves and more bell-shaped gumnuts with protruding valves. Warmer winters, for whatever climatic reason, are now allowing the pest to cause much more damage to the widely planted but genetically susceptible Sitka spruce. The saligna gum is grown extensively in plantations in South Africa in areas that formerly offered indifferent bee forage. E. grandis is found on coastal areas and sub-coastal ranges from the vicinity of Newcastle in New South Wales northwards to Bundaberg in central Queensland with disjunct populations further north near Mackay, Townsville and Daintree in northern Queensland, mainly on flat land and lower slopes. South Africa Eucalyptus Grandis Importers Directory - Offering South Africa's buying leads from buyers, importers, distributors & resellers at South Africa TradeKey.com When comparing P treatments, the recovery upon rewatering was greater in P-fertilized plants than in unfertilized plants (white clover (Trifolium repens L.): Singh et al., 1997; cluster bean: Burman et al., 2009) (Table 4.1). Later, stands need thinning to reduce competition between trees. Exact mechanisms have yet to be elucidated (Du and Yamamoto, 2007). Department of … However, there are differences in the levels of phosphatase activity between different ectomycorrhizal species. Of all the predisposing or avoidable problems mentioned in these tables, two related items stand out as fundamental to promoting and preserving tree health and reducing pest or disease attack. Table 8 considers tree health and its decline, as major predisposing factors to insect and disease outbreaks, whilst Table 9 itemizes forest management tactics known to exacerbate pest problems for even healthy trees. South African . ), and variations in stand age and productivity between species. Ringoet (1952), for example, found large seasonal differences in transpiration of oil palms growing in the Belgian Congo. Water use efficiency of South African Eucalyptus species ranges from 0.0008 to 0.0123 m 3 stemwood produced per m 3 water consumed. Scientific name: Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) Alternative common names: bluegum; rose gum; saligna (English); salignabloekom (Afrikaans) A tall, evergreen tree with a shaft-like trunk 25-55m high with smooth bark except for the part of the trunk up to 4m from the ground. However, the same species of pine had an earlier effect on streamflow (within 3 years) under the drier conditions prevailing in the Mokobulaan B catchment in Mpumalanga Province (Mok-B in Figure 8). The improved mineral nutrition of mycorrhizal plants is well documented, in particular, a role in the uptake of P by ectomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizae, and N uptake by ectomycorrhizae and to a lesser extent arbuscular mycorrhizae. This study assessed the recovery of vegetation and soil properties, three years following Eucalyptus grandis clearing using fell‐and‐removal and fell‐and‐stackburn methods at Zvakanaka Farm in Limpopo Province, South Africa. All these factors influence hillslope hydrological behavior. (1987). Differences in the rates at which nutrients are leached from foliage and bark may explain variation in epiphyte loads on forest species (Schlesinger and Marks, 1977). Although generally steep, the catchments have deep, well-drained soils and show very low stormflow response to rainfall. Flooded gum is an attractive, straight-trunked tree much in demand outside Australia for timber and pulp, and extensive plantations exist in South Africa and Brazil. Initial soil P concentration (i.e., − P treatment) was 8 μg “available” P g− 1 soil using the Bray and Kurtz (1945) method (mean ± s.e., n = 10). [2] It has been classified in the subgenus Symphyomyrtus, Section Latoangulatae, Series Transversae (eastern blue gums) by Brooker and Kleinig. As seen above, both nutrients and light have been confirmed to have major effects as preconditioning agents on rooting ability, a finding confirmed in Albizia guachapele. Nighttime transpiration may partially account for occasional reports of differences between predawn leaf water potentials and soil water potential (e.g., Donovan et al., 1999, 2001, 2003), a situation that prevents the requisite equilibration between soil and plant. Comparative genomics tools have also become available in Populus (Douglas and DiFazio, 2010; Neale and Ingvarsson, 2008) and Eucalyptus (Külheim et al., 2009; Paiva et al., 2011). Currently, genome sequencing of other Populus species and Fagaceae and Pinaceae species is also underway (Neale and Kremer, 2011). Larvae feed and grow under the bark of lodgepole pine trees; when they are sufficiently abundant, their tunneling ring barks (girdles) the host tree which dies, providing, incidentally, ideal breeding sites for a large number of secondary pests. Rose gum is one of the premier forest species in the Australian States of Queensland and New South Wales where it grows 43 to 55 … The flowers are followed by conical, pear- or cone-shaped fruit 4–10 mm (0.16–0.39 in) long and 5–8 mm (0.20–0.31 in) wide with the valves at rim level or slightly above. Inbreeding also has a general detrimental effect on fitness and results in the decline of fitness due to increased inbreeding, called ‘inbreeding depression’ (Charlesworth and Willis, 2009). Many Eucalypts have formed the backbone of forestry in South Africa since the 1800s. Eucalyptus grandis is native to the east coast of Australia. Shown (as symbols) are field data from four pine forestation experiments in Australia and New Zealand. Figure 5. Miller et al. Below ground, nutrients returned annually, as fine roots die, may match or exceed the amount contributed through leaf litter (Vogt et al., 1986). Using data documenting the survival proportion for different inbreeding categories, investigators have used this relationship extensively to determine how much inbreeding depression is present in a number of different species. (1968), Jupp and Newman (1987) found that even a mild drought stopped P uptake by perennial ryegrass, due to unavailability of P after the soil dried, although some recovery occurred 2–3 weeks after rewetting, with ~ 40% reduction in the final amount of P taken up compared with the undroughted control. Stocking: When growing … Gum trees (Eucalyptus sp.) Water Resources Research 23: 425–437. Clones of Eucalyptus grandis have been selected and bred on the basis of unpalatability to the brown Christmas beetle (Anoplognathus chloropyrus) to minimise damage to plantations. Most other E. grandis seed will be uncleaned, with expected seedling yields closer to 00- 50,000 per kg (NB. had the chaff removed) and should produce well over one million plants per kil-ogramme. The following Eucalyptus species have been able to become naturalised in South Africa: E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. diversicolor, E. grandis and E. lehmannii. The soils are deep fertile alluvial loams. Such contrasting results may be explained in terms of average soil water surplus or deficit, depth to the groundwater table and slope morphology. An example of inbreeding depression is in the Australian tree Eucalyptus grandis, which is used for timber production throughout the world. Spacing trials using the Nelder wheel. This expression can be solved to give the number of lethal equivalents as. Godbold, in Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, 2004. In a European sample, approximately 2% of the marriages were between first cousins, but 20% of the marriages that had offspring with albinism were among first cousins. Many earlier results were summarized by Kramer and Kozlowski (1979). Isolates were identified using morphological characters and comparisons of DNA sequence … Pinus patula and Eucalyptus grandis plantations W. Lesch, David F. Scott * Jonkershoek Forestry Research Centre, CSIR. Other conditions remaining the same, eucalypts have a slightly earlier impact on streamflows than pines in South Africa, normally within 2–3 years. It is found on coastal areas and sub-coastal ranges from Newcastle in New South Wales northwards to west of Daintree in Queensland, mainly on flat land and lower slopes, where it is the dominant tree of wet forests and on the margins of rainforests. Their high nutrient requirements, associated with high photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area and short leaf life spans, result in nutrient accumulations in biomass and litter that might otherwise be lost after forest cutting or fires (Pastor and Bockheim, 1984). In industrial plantation forestry, short- and medium-length tree rotations will tend to keep the trees in their peak water use phase, but longer rotation crops, such as those aimed at producing good quality saw timber, are more likely to have a smaller effect on water yield later on in the rotation. Suriyagoda, ... Hans Lambers, in Advances in Agronomy, 2014. Forestry Journal 205: 31–38. In nurseries, stockplants A new finding from the South African afforestation experiments is that the flow reductions are diminishing again during the postmaturation phase of the plantations, both in the case of pines (after about 30 years) and in at least one of the two eucalypt experiments (after 15 years). Preetmoninder Lidder, Andrea Sonnino, in Advances in Genetics, 2012. Published experimental results often represent the maximum possible impacts on streamflow. FIGURE 12.12. For the country’s total territorial area of about 119 million hectares, there is an area of approximately 1.5 million hectares of forest … Weaver and Mogensen (1919) in Nebraska and Ivanov (1924) at Leningrad reported that the winter transpiration rate of conifers was less than 1% of the summer rate. Thus far, Populus trichocarpa (Tuskan et al., 2006) and Eucalyptus grandis102 are the only forest trees for which the genome sequence has been completed. The changes in these stockplant factors are largely attributable to changes in the physiological condition of the shoots and are often related to vigor; thus they can be seen as a component of physiological aging. On 24 other nights, lower rates were observed and transpiration was tightly correlated with vapor pressure deficit and nighttime wind speed. Felling only when a market is ready to receive the produce can avoid the risk of mass outbreaks of pests such as bark beetles and longhorns. 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