In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos (5%) and Vietnamese (2%). Starting with the founding of the Sierra Club in 1892 to the establishment of the non-profit Friends of the Urban Forest in 1981, San Francisco has been at the forefront of many global discussions regarding the environment. San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area. "Seekers of the Northern Mystery," by Iris Engstrand, California Historical Quarterly, p78ff, 1997. San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy. [Edward F. O’Day] This year , and at this season, San Francisco celebrates the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of its birth. , In autumn of 1855, a ship bearing refugees from an ongoing cholera epidemic in the Far East (authorities disagree as to whether this was the S.S. Sam or the S.S. Carolina but primary documents indicate that the Carolina was involved in the epidemic of 1850 and the SS Uncle Sam in the epidemic of 1855) docked in San Francisco. At stations in downtown San Francisco, BART connects with Muni, the city subway, which has lines that run underground along Market Street, and then along surface streets through much of the city. Cycling is a popular mode of transportation in San Francisco, with 75,000 residents commuting by bicycle each day. Five members of the Joe Boys gang were arrested and convicted of the crime. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today. San Francisco falls under the USDA 10b Plant hardiness zone. It was in this period that the island of Alcatraz, a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as Al Capone, and Robert Franklin Stroud, the Birdman of Alcatraz. Issues & Controversies in American History @ FACTS.com. By 2003, the city's economy had recovered from the dot-com crash thanks to a resurgent international tourist industry and the Web 2.0 boom that saw the creation of many new internet and software start-up companies in the city, attracting white-collar workers, recent University graduates, and young adults from all over the world. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone and was later selected by the board to finish the term. , San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown and the Mission District. , Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County, San Francisco International Airport (SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. It moved to its current building in the South of Market neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually. While the bust helped put an ease on the city's apartment rents, the city remained expensive. The Bay to Breakers footrace, held annually since 1912, is best known for colorful costumes and a celebratory community spirit. This popular militia movement lynched 12 people, kidnapped hundreds of Irishmen and government militia members, and forced several elected officials to resign. On June 13, 1907, Mayor E. E. Schmitz was found guilty of extortion and the office of Mayor was declared vacant.  More than half of the city's population of 400,000 was left homeless. The city was founded on June 29, 1776 when a fort was built by what would become the Golden Gate Bridge.  Indeed, it was at the height of the Great Depression that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge, completing them in 1936 and 1937, respectively. Starting in the later half of the 1960s, San Francisco became the city most famous for the hippie movement. The mission’s iconic church is the oldest intact building in San Francisco.  After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. It is here that the Financial District is centered, with Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the Tenderloin nearby. Raises Curtain For Broadway Hits", 16th most populous city in the United States, 12th-largest metropolitan statistical area, CSA San Francisco shares with San Jose and Oakland, opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association, National Register of Historic Places listings in San Francisco, List of Landmarks and Historic Places in San Francisco, List of tallest buildings in San Francisco, San Francisco–Oakland–Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco, Homelessness in the San Francisco Bay Area, California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, List of museums in San Francisco Bay Area, California § San Francisco, San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department, shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown, Sister cities of San Francisco, California, List of diplomatic missions in San Francisco, List of colleges and universities in San Francisco, University of California, Hastings College of the Law, List of high schools in California § San Francisco County, Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area, San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, Gold Mountain (Chinese name for part of North America), List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay Area, List of largest California cities by population, "Don't Call It Frisco: The History of San Francisco's Nicknames", "Elevations and Distances in the United States", "QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California", "GDP by County, Metro, and Other Areas; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)", "GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – Census Tract", "People who live in these cities earn the highest salaries in the world, research shows", "San Francisco Unseats Zurich as City With Highest Salaries and Most Disposable Income", "San Francisco rent prices broke all-time high records in June", "Personal Income by County, Metro, and Other Areas | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)", "Resident Population in San Francisco County/city, CA", "Historical Population Estimates for 2010 U.S. States, Counties and Metro/Micro Areas, 1790–2010", "Remembering the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake", "Port of Embarkation Essay—World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area", "Charter of the United Nations | United Nations", "History of the United Nations | United Nations", "San Francisco – the birthplace of the United Nations", Top U.S. , The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion, and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States. The same docks at Hunters Point would be used for loading the key fissile components of the first atomic bomb onto the USS Indianapolis in July 1945 for transfer to Tinian. 1 in a study that examined which U.S. metro areas have produced the most Major Leaguers since 1920.. The National Park Service separately administers the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park – a fleet of historic ships and waterfront property around Aquatic Park. European discovery and exploration of the San Francisco Bay Area and its islands began in 1542 and culminated with themapping of the bay in 1775. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos of any race (15%). South of Market, where many dot-com(.com) companies were located, had been bustling and crowded with few vacancies, but by 2002 was a virtual wasteland of empty offices and for-rent signs. 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